LangChain Arbitrary Command Execution — CVE-2023–34541

3 min readJul 9, 2023

Vulnerability Introduction

LangChain is a framework for developing applications driven by language models.

In the affected version of LangChain, because the load_prompt function does not perform security filtering on the loaded content when loading the prompt file, an attacker can induce users to load the file by constructing a prompt file containing malicious commands, which can cause arbitrary system commands to be executed.

Vulnerability Recurrence

Write under project

from  langchain . prompts  import  load_prompt 
if __name__ == '__main__' : loaded_prompt = load_prompt ( "" ) Write and execute system commands in the same directory dir

import  os 
os . system ( "dir" )

Run returns dir the result of executing a system command

Vulnerability Analysis:-_load_prompt_from_file


try_load_from_hub is trying to remotely load a file from a given path but because we are loading a local file, the next step is to jump to _load_prompt_from_file


According to _load_prompt_from_file to the suffix of the file, when the suffix is .py the file will be read and used exec to execute

That is to say, the code can be abbreviated as

if  __name__  ==  '__main__' : file_path = "" with open ( file_path , "rb" ) as f : exec ( f . read ())

Vulnerability Analysis:- try_load_from_hub

Because of the network, there has been no way to reproduce the success, here is a detailed analysis of the code level

from  langchain.prompts import load_prompt _ _  

if __name__ == '__main__' : loaded_prompt = load_prompt ( "lc://prompts/../../../../../../../"



It is matched first HUB_PATH_RE = re.compile(r”lc(?Pref@[^:]+)?://(?Ppath.*)”), so the need to satisfy the initial is lc://

Then match the following content, requiring the value of the first field to be prompts the last suffix {‘py’, ‘yaml’, ‘json’}in

Finally, the url of the splicing request can ../../../ point to the file we set by bypassing the restrictions of the project, and read and load to realize arbitrary command execution

Vulnerability Summary

Trying on the latest version, this vulnerability still exists. The essence of this vulnerability is that it can load and execute local or specified Python files, but this problem should not be so easy to exploit in practical applications, because the address of the Python file must be controllable just to work.

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